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Study: Circumcision Permanently Alters the Brain, Researchers Threatened

Study: Circumcision Permanently Alters the Brain, Researchers Threatened

After discovering that the trauma from circumcision permanently altered the baby’s brain in regions associated with reasoning, perception and emotions, the researchers were threatened to destroy their results or face legal action and immediate dismissal.

circumcision

As a graduate student working in the Department of Epidemiology at Kingston General Hospital, Paul D. Tinari, Ph.D. was approached by a group of nurses who had noticed that babies that underwent circumcision were experiencing excruciating levels of pain that negatively affected their behavior.   In an attempt to gather some scientific evidence that would support their positions,  Tinari suggested functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) and/or Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scanning to observe the effects of circumcision on the infant brain.

Tinari and the nurses used the MRI machine for their study after the MRI machine operator granted them permission.  Next they needed a test subject whose brain they could scan for changes pre and post circumcision.  A pregnant nurse volunteered her son to be the subject of the study.  Her husband had been putting intense pressure on her to have the procedure done, and it was her hope that the information gathered from the study would lead to the complete eradication of male infant circumcision.

What did the MRI Brain Scans Reveal?

The researchers tightly strapped the infant to the traditional plastic “circumstraint”, and immobilized the infants head using the standard surgical tape.  With no anesthetic used, the entire contraption was put into the MRI chamber, and the doctor performed the surgery using a sterilized plastic blade (since no metal objects can be used in an MRI due to large magnetic fields).

Paul D. Tinari, Ph.D. explains the results of his study:

The baby was kept in the machine for several minutes to generate baseline data of the normal metabolic activity in the brain. This was used to compare to the data gathered during and after the surgery. Analysis of the MRI data indicated that the surgery subjected the infant to significant trauma. The greatest changes occurred in the limbic system concentrating in the amygdala and in the frontal and temporal lobes.A neurologist who saw the results postulated that the data indicated that circumcision affected most intensely the portions of the victim’s brain associated with reasoning, perception and emotions. Follow up tests on the infant one day, one week and one month after the surgery indicated that the child’s brain never returned to its baseline configuration. In other words, the evidence generated by this research indicated that the brain of the circumcised infant was permanently changed by the surgery.

Researchers Threatened and Forced to Destroy Study Results

“Our problems began when we attempted to publish our findings in the open medical literature,” explained Paul Tinari.  All of the researchers who participated in the study were called before the discipline committee at Kingston General Hospital who severely reprimanded them, stating that male circumcision was legal under all circumstances in Canada, and that studying the adverse effects of circumcision was strictly prohibited.  The research team wasn’t allowed to publish the results of their study, and what’s more, they were forced to destroy all of their results.  The penalty that would be imposed upon them if they failed to comply was immediate dismissal and legal action.

As Paul D. Tinari, current director of the Pacific Institute for Advanced Study has written,

I would encourage anyone with access to fMRI and /or PET scanning machines to repeat our research as described above, confirm our results, and then publish the results in the open literature.

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Comment by Besimi on March 19, 2015 at 2:19am

Giant Human Skeleton in Varna, Bulgaria

Giant Human Skeleton unearthed in Varna, Bulgaria

Archaeologists in Bulgaria have discovered the remains of what they have described as a “huge skeleton” in downtown Varna, a city on the shores of the Black Sea whose rich culture and civilizations spans some 7,000 years.

Sofia News Agency, Novinite, reports that the skeleton was found in what was once the ancient city of Odessos, a trading post established by the Greeks towards the end of the 7th century BC. Odessos was a mixed community made up of Ionian Greeks and the Thracian tribes (Getae, Krobyzoi, Terizi). Later it was controlled by the Thracians, Macedonians, and then Romans. The Roman city, Odessus, covered 47 hectares in present-day central Varna and had prominent public baths, Thermae, erected in the late 2nd century AD, now the largest Roman remains in Bulgaria.

Remains of ancient Odessus in Varna, Bulgaria

Remains of ancient Odessus in Varna, Bulgaria (Wikimedia Commons)

Researchers have said that initial analyses suggest the skeleton belongs to a man who lived in the late 4th or early 5th century AD, a time when Odessus was an early Christian center.

Valeri Yotov, who is part of the team carrying out excavations there, is reported as telling local news websites that the size of the bones is “impressive” and that they belonged to “a very tall man”. However, Yotov would not reveal the exact height of the skeleton.

The remains were found near the remains of the ancient city wall and Yotov has suggested that the man may have died while working or during a ceremony held near the city walls.

“His posture, with hands laid on his waist and his body pointing to the east (head) and west (feet) is a clear indication for archaeologists he was buried,” reports Novinite.

MORE

It is not the first time that an over-sized skeleton has been found in Eastern Europe. In 2013, the skeleton of a giant warrior dating back to 1600 BC was found in San.... Nicknamed ‘Goliath’, the warrior measured more than 2 meters in height, highly unusually for the time and place, when people were of small stature (approximately 1.5 meters on average).  The warrior was buried with an impressive dagger that indicated his high stature.

Giant skeleton nicknamed 'Goliath' found in Santa Mare, Romania

Giant skeleton nicknamed ‘Goliath’ found in Santa Mare, Romania (Satmareanul.net)

Featured image: The newly-discovered giant skeleton in Bulgaria. Photo by BGNES

- See more at: http://www.ancient-origins.net/news-history-archaeology/giant-human...

Comment by Besimi on March 17, 2015 at 10:06pm

Mystery of our 145 'alien' genes: Scientists discover some DNA is NOT from our ancestors - and say it could change how we think about evolution

Mystery of our 145 'alien' genes: Scientists discover some DNA is NOT from our ancestors - and say it could change how we think about evolution

  • Study challenges views that evolution relies solely on genes passed down
  • Instead says we acquired essential 'foreign' genes from microorganisms

The say we acquired essential 'foreign' genes from microorganisms co-habiting their environment in ancient times.

The study challenges conventional views that animal evolution relies solely on genes passed down through ancestral lines - and says the process could still be going on. 

Cambridge researchers say we acquired essential 'foreign' genes from microorganisms co-habiting their environment in ancient times.

Cambridge researchers say we acquired essential 'foreign' genes from microorganisms co-habiting their environment in ancient times.

HORIZONTAL GENE TRANSFER

The transfer of genes between organisms living in the same environment is known as horizontal gene transfer (HGT).

It is well known in single-celled organisms and thought to be an important process that explains how quickly bacteria evolve, for example, resistance to antibiotics.

HGT is thought to play an important role in the evolution of some animals, including nematode worms which have acquired genes from microorganisms and plants, and some beetles that gained bacterial genes to produce enzymes for digesting coffee berries. 

The research published in the open access journal Genome Biology focuses on the use of horizontal gene transfer, the transfer of genes between organisms living in the same environment. 

'This is the first study to show how widely horizontal gene transfer (HGT) occurs in animals, including humans, giving rise to tens or hundreds of active 'foreign' genes,' said lead author Alastair Crisp from the University of Cambridge.

'Surprisingly, far from being a rare occurrence, it appears that HGT has contributed to the evolution of many, perhaps all, animals and that the process is ongoing, meaning that we may need to re-evaluate how we think about evolution.'

It is well known in single-celled organisms and thought to be an important process that explains how quickly bacteria evolve, for example, resistance to antibiotics.

HGT is thought to play an important role in the evolution of some animals, including nematode worms which have acquired genes from microorganisms and plants, and some beetles that gained bacterial genes to produce enzymes for digesting coffee berries. 

However, the idea that HGT occurs in more complex animals, such as humans, rather than them solely gaining genes directly from ancestors, has been widely debated and contested.

They calculated how well each of their genes aligns to similar genes in other species to estimate how likely they were to be foreign in origin. 

By comparing with other groups of species, they were able to estimate how long ago the genes were likely to have been acquired.

A number of genes, including the ABO blood group gene, were confirmed as having been acquired by vertebrates through HGT. The majority of the other genes were related to enzymes involved in metabolism.

In humans, they confirmed 17 previously-reported genes acquired from HGT, and identified 128 additional foreign genes in the human genome that have not previously been reported.

HGT is thought to play an important role in the evolution of some animals, including nematode worms which have acquired genes from microorganisms and plants

HGT is thought to play an important role in the evolution of some animals, including nematode worms which have acquired genes from microorganisms and plants

A brief and simple description of DNA (related)

Some of those genes were involved in lipid metabolism, including the breakdown of fatty acids and the formation of glycolipids. 

Others were involved in immune responses, including the inflammatory response, immune cell signalling, and antimicrobial responses, while further gene categories include amino-acid metabolism, protein modification and antioxidant activities.

The team were able to identify the likely class of organisms the transferred genes came from. Bacteria and protists, another class of microorganisms, were the most common donors in all species studied. 

They also identified HGT from viruses, which was responsible for up to 50 more foreign genes in primates.

Some genes were identified as having originated from fungi. 

This explains why some previous studies, which only focused on bacteria as the source of HGT, originally rejected the idea that these genes were 'foreign' in origin.

The majority of HGT in primates was found to be ancient, occurring sometime between the common ancestor of Chordata and the common ancestor of the primates.

The authors say that their analysis probably underestimates the true extent of HGT in animals and that direct HGT between complex multicellular organisms is also plausible, and already known in some host-parasite relationships.



Read more: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-2994187/Mystery-alie... 
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